邯郸论文组

地理人文社成果展示论文

深外初中部团学联2018-11-08 15:27:11

Gary Gustav Sun, Sasha Zhao, Patrick Jiang, Dilis Wu and All members of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS are responsible to the creation of this article

GARY GUSTAV SUN LEAD THE CREATION OF THIS ARTICLE

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

VIOLATORS WILL BE PROSECUTED

2017年11月14日


Renaissance and geographical elements hidden behind

Directory Catalogue

1.           ———— Introduction

2.           ————A brief discussion of Renaissance

2.1 Definition of Renaissance

2.2 Major contributions of Renaissance

3.           ————A brief introduction to representative events, cities, and leading figures of Renaissance

3.1 Representative events

3.2 Representative cities

3.3 Representative figures

4.           ————An analysis of geographical elements’ and historical leftover’s influence on Renaissance

5.           ————The influence left by Renaissance

6.           ————Bibliography 


I. INTRODUCTION

The discussion concerning Renaissance is not a new topic, while it remains many questions unresolved. After doing researches in different areas, and reading both domestic and international thesis, the writers find that the questions mainly lie in the debate over several aspects, including the reason why Renaissance was a continent-wide movement, and why its ideas were extensively accepted and applied. This thesis is to focus on these questions, with support of valid academic documents of Renaissance from different institutions, and to analyse the questions raised but unresolved systematically, through different perspectives.

文艺复兴并不是一个新话题,然而在这个话题之内仍然有许多问题未解决。作者通过对不同领域的研究和阅读国内外的论文,发现炙手可热的问题主要在于文艺复兴发生的原因,为何文艺复兴运动是一个泛大陆性大陆运动,以及为什么它的思想被广泛接受和应用。本文将以这些问题为切入点,以不同机构文艺复兴时期有效的学术文献为支撑,从不同的角度系统地分析这些被提出的问题。


II. A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF RENAISSANCE

PART ONE: DEFINITION OF RENAISSANCE

As widely accepted by historians, artists and the like, Renaissance is in general viewed as a major European cultural movement, which served as a cultural bridge linking the Medieval Age and Modern History, and which initiated as a cultural movement in Italy during 14th century. Renaissance, according to the major idea and most of the documents that exist, took place from 14th century to 17th century. The initial idea and goal of Renaissance, in short, is to emphasise humanism and to retain the cultural prosperity in Classical Age, in which Greek and Roman culture took place. Although it was set to turn Europe back to the resplendent Classical Age, Renaissance soon evolved into an extensive and radical change in European art, architecture, art, science and literature. Nowadays, Renaissance is also a manifestation of European culture and human improvement.

第一部分:文艺复兴的定义。

义 。

As widely accepted by historians, artists and the like, Renaissance is in general viewed as a major European cultural movement, which served as a cultural bridge linking the Medieval Age and Modern History, and which initiated as a cultural movement in Italy during 14th century. Renais-sance, according to the major idea and most of the documents that exist, took place from 14th century to 17th century. The initial idea and goal of Renaissance, in short, is to emphasise hu-manism and to retain the cultural prosperity in Classical Age, in which Greek and Roman culture took place. Although it was set to turn Europe back to the resplendent Classical Age, Renaissance soon evolved into an extensive and radical change in European art, architecture, art, science and literature. Nowadays, Renaissance is also a manifestation of European culture and human im-provement.

文艺复兴运通常被视为欧洲最主要的文化运动之一。它作为连接中世纪和现代历史的文化桥梁而存在,而且它也是影响欧美文化最深的运动之一。主要的观点和大多数存在的文件表明,文艺复兴从十四世纪开始,到十七世纪结束。总之,文艺复兴最初的想法和目标,就是强调人文主义和追寻回古典时代文化的繁荣。然而,文艺复兴虽然一开始试图将欧洲带回辉煌的古典时代,但很快演变成欧洲艺术、建筑、艺术、科学和文学的广泛而激进的变化。如今,文艺复兴也是欧洲文化和人类自我的升华的一种体现

 

PART TWO: MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS OF RENAISSANCE

As a cultural movement, Renaissance contained various changes. In literature, Renaissance encompassed the flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources; In art, the development of linear perspective and other techniques rendered a more natural reality in painting; In politics, Renaissance contributed to the development of customs and diplomacy, and it paved the road for the global modernisation started in 17th century. And in science Renaissance led to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning.

Although Renaissance had so many contributions, perhaps it is most famous for its artistic achievement, mainly done by Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.

文艺复兴作为一种文化运动,带来了各种各样的变化。在文学上,在十四世纪对古典文学的研究的再兴起之上,文艺复兴给今天的世界带来了一段拉丁和希腊文学的盛世;在艺术中,在这个时期产生的线性透视和其他技术的发展提供了更加自然而真实的绘画;在政治上,文艺复兴后期,即十七世纪,海关、外交等现代化政治理念开始发展,从而铺平了全球现代化的道路。在科学方面,文艺复兴导致人们越来越依赖观察和归纳推理,而非中世纪的主观臆想。

虽然文艺复兴有非常多的贡献,但想必它最著名的艺术成就,基本上都来自于达·芬奇和米开朗基罗。


III. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO REPRESENTATIVE EVENTS, CITIES AND LEADING FIGURES OF RENAISSANCE

PART ONE: REPRESENTATIVE EVENTS

The development of Renaissance is more like a chain, which is linked by junctures and lines. For Renaissance, the junctures are the events, and the line is its gradual spread in Europe.

The first event was the emergence of writing, which took place in the late 13th century Florence, in particular with the writing of Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) and Petrarch(1304-1374), as well as the paintings of Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). These writings and arts got out of the cage of religious writing and art of the Medieval Age. A perfect example is Dante’s “Divine Comedy”, which indirectly attacked the obscurantism of Roman Catholicism. The classicism that was objected by the Catholics, was canonised in this great poem. Dante showed his great pursuit to the truth and learning, and intrepidness to the consequences of pursuing knowledge. His spirit became the main ideology of the whole Renaissance, and as the movement went on, many a figure fought and died for this spirit.

文艺复兴的发展更像是一根链条,它是由点和线组成的。在文艺复兴时期,点就是事件,而线就是这些事件在欧洲范围内逐渐起到的影响。

第一个事件就是新时代文学的出现。这一事件伊始于十三世纪下旬的佛罗伦萨,代表人物和作品有阿利盖利·但丁(1265-1321)的文学作品、彼特拉克(1304-1374)以及乔托·迪·邦多纳的画(1267-1337)。这些著作和艺术摆脱了中世纪宗教文学和艺术的牢笼。一个完美的例子就是是但丁的《神曲》,这部伟大的作品间接攻击了罗马教宗所奉行的蒙昧主义。被天主教所否认和践踏的古典主义,在这部作品中被大加推崇。但丁在神曲中展示了他执着追求和学习真理,无畏地追求知识的伟大精神。他的精神成为整个文艺复兴时期的主要意识形态。随着运动的进行,许多人都为了这种精神而战斗和死亡。

The second event was the Great Voyage Age. The disappearance of Silk Road and chaos in Middle East in the late 15th century forced Europeans to develop a new route to China and India. This route is from Europe, going around Africa, and eventually to India and China. The development of this route in fact led to the discovery of America and South Africa, and thus paved the road to the Age of Colonisation.

第二个事件就是著名的大航海时代。十五世纪末,经过中东的丝绸之路因阿拉伯帝国的混乱争端而中断,迫使欧洲人建立去往中国和印度的新道路。这条路线是从欧洲出发,绕过非洲,最后到达印度和中国。事实上,这条路线的发展导致了美洲大陆和南非的发现,从而为大殖民时代铺平了道路。

The last event of Renaissance is the various Capitalist Revolutions. These revolutions are evenly scattered in most of the European countries, like The British Empire, France, Russia, Italy, Spain, Poland, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark,Sweden, and Netherlands. Some succeeded, yet some were crashed by the loyalists and Royalties. The revolutions served as the mark of Renaissance’s ending, since its goal was then fulfilled: To root the idea of progress into Europeans, and to topple the reign of Roman Catholicism.

文艺复兴的最后一件大事是各种资本主义革命。这些革命均匀地分散在欧洲各地,如大英帝国,法国,俄罗斯,意大利,西班牙,波兰,丹麦王国,神圣罗马帝国,瑞典王国和荷兰。有些成功了,但有些被皇室及其追随者所击败。资本主义革命标志着文艺复兴的结束,因为它的目标实现了:将进步的思想扎根于欧洲人心中,并推翻罗马教宗的统治。

PART TWO: REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

 

Florence: The origins and centre of Renaissance. Under the support of Medici Family, the ruler of Florence, many ideologies and new inventions were developed here. For example, the print shops in Florence were the first ones in Europe that printed books extensively, and these shops enabled the fast spread of new knowledge to France, Germany, Poland and Britain. Plus, it also outcompeted the clergies in the churches that copied the book, and thus weakened the influence of church.

Besides, Florence is also the stage of many artists and famous figures in Renaissance, such as Leonardo da Vinci, Machiavelli, and Michelangelo. These figures achieved some of their most famous works in Florence, and all those works glorified this city.

佛罗伦萨:文艺复兴的起源和中心。在当权者美第奇家族的支持下,许多思想和新发明都是在这里出现的。例如,佛罗伦萨的印刷工厂是欧洲第一个成规模的印刷产业,这些商店使新知得以法国、德国、波兰和英国等地迅速传播开来。另外,这种产业也要比神职人员在教堂手抄快,从而就削弱了教会对社会的影响。

此外,佛罗伦萨也是文艺复兴时期许多艺术家和名人的舞台,如达·芬奇、马基雅维利和米切朗基罗。这些人在佛罗伦萨成就了他们的一些最著名的作品,而且所有这些作品都使这个城市变得美丽动人。

                                                                                                                                                

Venice: Serving as one of the most important Ports in Europe, Venice actually appeared to be the most advanced during the Renaissance. Unlike other countries and city-states, which were ruled by either councils or monarchs, Venice was under the rule of a Merchant Commonwealth. That is, merchants ruled Venice at that time. Venice is always famous for its beautiful environments and sophisticated water transportation systems. Although Venice was on the way of declination in Renaissance due to its failure in Crusades, it was still one of the cultural centres of Renaissance.

不像无论是由古典议会还是君主统治的其他国家和城邦,威尼斯是由一个商人联邦统治的。也就是说,商人当时把持着威尼斯的政权。威尼斯以其优美的环境和复杂的水路运输系统而闻名于世。尽管她在文艺复兴时期由于十字军东征的失败而衰落,但她仍然是文艺复兴时期的文化中心之一。

 

Paris: Perhaps the most famous achievement of Paris during Renaissance is its development of make-ups and jewelries. These inventions were motivated by the idea that human beings should value themselves more than anything, even the holy one above. However, there are figures like Montaigne and Francois Rabelais who created great works such as “ Les essais de Michel de Montaigne” and “Gargantua et Pantagruel”, made Paris another centre of Renaissance.

巴黎:也许巴黎在文艺复兴时期最著名的成就就是发展了化妆品和珠宝。当时盛行的人文主义宣扬人们应当注重自己的生活超过对上帝的崇拜,而这就成为了巴黎在这些方面的发展的动机。然而,在文学上巴黎也有像蒙田和弗朗索瓦·拉伯雷这样创造了伟大的作品的人物,如“Les essais de Michel de Montaigne”和“巨人传”。所有的这一切一起将巴黎变成了文艺复兴时期的另一个中心。

 

London: This city is famous for only one figure in the whole Renaissance, yet this one figure is forever famous, and he is the most influential in the whole English literature history. He is William Shakespeare. Many great plays, poems, passages were created by him, and he put supreme glory to this whole city. Besides, Sir Thomas More was also a representative figure of London. He is famous for his work “Utopia” and his Utopian Socialism.

Other than its cultural achievements, London was also a scientific city during Renaissance. The basic form of modern capitalism was established in London in 16th century. The representative was the cotton factory, which divided the work and cooperated with one another, to achieve higher productivity.

伦敦:这座城市在整个文艺复兴时期只有一位异常著名的人物,但伦敦只需要这一位来流芳百世,他是整个英国文学史上最有影响力的人物。他就是,威廉·莎士比亚。他创作了许多伟大的戏剧、诗歌、短文,比如麦克白、哈姆雷特、以及数不清的十四行诗。他的著作几乎都家喻户晓。可以说他给这座城市带来了无限荣耀。此外,托马斯爵士也是伦敦的代表人物。他以他的著作“乌托邦”和空想社会主义闻名于世。

除了文艺成就,文艺复兴时期的伦敦也是一座科学和工业城市。通过研究发现,现代资本主义的基本形式,即流水线生产,是于十六世纪在伦敦建立的。形式的代表是棉厂,他们分工协作,以取得更高的生产力。

PART THREE: REPRESENTATIVE FIGURES

Leonardo da Vinci: The greatest artists ever known. He created numerous art works, like  Mona Lisa. He also achieved much in architecture, astronomy, science and the like. There is no need of intrigue description but just one word that is enough for him: Polymath.

达·芬奇:有史以来最伟大的艺术家。他创作了许多艺术作品,如蒙娜丽莎。他在建筑学、天文学、科学等方面也取得了很大成就。对于他,我们根本不需要太多的描述,只需一个词:博学家。

 

Shakespeare: As another astonishing figure in the history, it is generally agreed that he created the modern English Literature. The leftover of his creation includes 39 plays, 154 sonnets and 2 long narrative poems. Compared to his contemporaries, Shakespeare faced less trouble with living, which enabled him to constantly focus on his literary work. Although the language he used, the Middle English, was a difficult one to people nowadays, what he wrote was actually not for a high level taste. His work was never hard to understand to poor people, and there were even vulgar words appeared. After all, he was a great writer, but he was not entirely a servant of aristocracy and Royalty. His work influenced generations and generations, and there is no need to tell his importance on the inner world of the human race.

莎士比亚:作为历史上另一个惊人的人物,他被普遍认为中古英语文学和现代英语文学的分界线。自他之后,英语文学迈入了现代。他的创作包括39部戏剧、154首十四行诗和2首长篇叙事诗。与他同时代的文学家相比,莎士比亚在生活上遇到的麻烦和烦心事更少,这使他能够专注于自己的文学作品。虽然他所使用的语言,中古英语,对现在的人们来说是很难理解的,但他的作品实际上并不是一种高品位的东西。他的作品的主要受众群基本是中下级阶层,而这些作品里甚至还有极为粗俗的语言出现。他流芳百世,只不过是因为上流社会也十分欣赏他的文学作品罢了。他的作品影响了十几二十代人,而且这种影响还会继续。他的重要性也无需再赘述了。

Michelangelo Buonarroti: One of the greatest sculptor in the world. His sculpture techniques were even admired and worshipped nowadays, when technology is gradually being capable of everything. His life as a sculptor commenced since 13 years old. He worked as apprentice of Ghirlandaio, and then he attended the college of Medici in Florence. After Lorenzo Medici, his protector, died, Michelangelo felt the necessity to leave his home and to start somewhere else. Then he arrived in Rome, in which he achieved mastery in sculpture.

People nowadays know much about his works: David, Sistine Chapel ceiling, Piéta and so on. All of these were created with price, and that price is Michelangelo’s health. Years of working with head uplifting brought about great ache in Michelangelo’s neck, and according to the servants, “ He even had to lift the letters over his head to read, or he will suffer greater pain…”. All of these should remind us of that not only his work and techniques matter, but also his great persistence and devotedness matter. That is the reason why he is respected as one of the greatest sculptors in the world, and in the history.

Michelangelo Buonarroti:世界上最伟大的雕塑家。如今,当高科技已经逐渐可以达到艺术家的一切要求的时候,他的雕塑技术仍然受到人们的钦佩和崇拜。米开朗基罗从13岁起就开始了雕刻家生涯。他当过著名雕塑家Ghirlandaio的学徒,然后他还去了佛罗伦萨的美第奇学院。他的赞助人兼保护人,洛伦佐·美第奇死后,米切朗基罗觉得他有必要离开他的家乡,在一个新的地方重新开始。之后,他到达罗马,在那里他继续学习,并最终精通了雕塑。

现在的人们基本熟知他的很多作品:大卫,创世纪和Pieta等。这些伟大的作品都是用一个代价换来的,那就是米开朗基罗他本人的健康。多年来的创作,给米切朗基罗的脖子带来了顽疾,和无法忍受的疼痛。据他的仆人说,“他甚至不得不把信举过头顶去读,否则他将承受更大的痛苦……”。所有这些都提醒我们,米开朗基罗之所以被称为历史上最伟大的雕塑家,不仅仅是因为他精湛的技术,更是因为他那超越自我的伟大奉献精神。

III. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO REPRESENTATIVE EVENTS, CITIES AND LEADING FIGURES OF RENAISSANCE

PART ONE: REPRESENTATIVE EVENTS

The development of Renaissance is more like a chain, which is linked by junctures and lines. For Renaissance, the junctures are the events, and the line is its gradual spread in Europe.

The first event was the emergence of writing, which took place in the late 13th century Florence, in particular with the writing of Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) and Petrarch(1304-1374), as well as the paintings of Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). These writings and arts got out of the cage of religious writing and art of the Medieval Age. A perfect example is Dante’s “Divine Comedy”, which indirectly attacked the obscurantism of Roman Catholicism. The classicism that was objected by the Catholics, was canonised in this great poem. Dante showed his great pursuit to the truth and learning, and intrepidness to the consequences of pursuing knowledge. His spirit became the main ideology of the whole Renaissance, and as the movement went on, many a figure fought and died for this spirit.

文艺复兴的发展更像是一根链条,它是由点和线组成的。在文艺复兴时期,点就是事件,而线就是这些事件在欧洲范围内逐渐起到的影响。

第一个事件就是新时代文学的出现。这一事件伊始于十三世纪下旬的佛罗伦萨,代表人物和作品有阿利盖利·但丁(1265-1321)的文学作品、彼特拉克(1304-1374)以及乔托·迪·邦多纳的画(1267-1337)。这些著作和艺术摆脱了中世纪宗教文学和艺术的牢笼。一个完美的例子就是是但丁的《神曲》,这部伟大的作品间接攻击了罗马教宗所奉行的蒙昧主义。被天主教所否认和践踏的古典主义,在这部作品中被大加推崇。但丁在神曲中展示了他执着追求和学习真理,无畏地追求知识的伟大精神。他的精神成为整个文艺复兴时期的主要意识形态。随着运动的进行,许多人都为了这种精神而战斗和死亡。

The second event was the Great Voyage Age. The disappearance of Silk Road and chaos in Middle East in the late 15th century forced Europeans to develop a new route to China and India. This route is from Europe, going around Africa, and eventually to India and China. The development of this route in fact led to the discovery of America and South Africa, and thus paved the road to the Age of Colonisation.

第二个事件就是著名的大航海时代。十五世纪末,经过中东的丝绸之路因阿拉伯帝国的混乱争端而中断,迫使欧洲人建立去往中国和印度的新道路。这条路线是从欧洲出发,绕过非洲,最后到达印度和中国。事实上,这条路线的发展导致了美洲大陆和南非的发现,从而为大殖民时代铺平了道路。

The last event of Renaissance is the various Capitalist Revolutions. These revolutions are evenly scattered in most of the European countries, like The British Empire, France, Russia, Italy, Spain, Poland, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark,Sweden, and Netherlands. Some succeeded, yet some were crashed by the loyalists and Royalties. The revolutions served as the mark of Renaissance’s ending, since its goal was then fulfilled: To root the idea of progress into Europeans, and to topple the reign of Roman Catholicism.

文艺复兴的最后一件大事是各种资本主义革命。这些革命均匀地分散在欧洲各地,如大英帝国,法国,俄罗斯,意大利,西班牙,波兰,丹麦王国,神圣罗马帝国,瑞典王国和荷兰。有些成功了,但有些被皇室及其追随者所击败。资本主义革命标志着文艺复兴的结束,因为它的目标实现了:将进步的思想扎根于欧洲人心中,并推翻罗马教宗的统治。

PART TWO: REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

 

Florence: The origins and centre of Renaissance. Under the support of Medici Family, the ruler of Florence, many ideologies and new inventions were developed here. For example, the print shops in Florence were the first ones in Europe that printed books extensively, and these shops enabled the fast spread of new knowledge to France, Germany, Poland and Britain. Plus, it also outcompeted the clergies in the churches that copied the book, and thus weakened the influence of church.

Besides, Florence is also the stage of many artists and famous figures in Renaissance, such as Leonardo da Vinci, Machiavelli, and Michelangelo. These figures achieved some of their most famous works in Florence, and all those works glorified this city.

佛罗伦萨:文艺复兴的起源和中心。在当权者美第奇家族的支持下,许多思想和新发明都是在这里出现的。例如,佛罗伦萨的印刷工厂是欧洲第一个成规模的印刷产业,这些商店使新知得以法国、德国、波兰和英国等地迅速传播开来。另外,这种产业也要比神职人员在教堂手抄快,从而就削弱了教会对社会的影响。

此外,佛罗伦萨也是文艺复兴时期许多艺术家和名人的舞台,如达·芬奇、马基雅维利和米切朗基罗。这些人在佛罗伦萨成就了他们的一些最著名的作品,而且所有这些作品都使这个城市变得美丽动人。

                                                                                                                                                

Venice: Serving as one of the most important Ports in Europe, Venice actually appeared to be the most advanced during the Renaissance. Unlike other countries and city-states, which were ruled by either councils or monarchs, Venice was under the rule of a Merchant Commonwealth. That is, merchants ruled Venice at that time. Venice is always famous for its beautiful environments and sophisticated water transportation systems. Although Venice was on the way of declination in Renaissance due to its failure in Crusades, it was still one of the cultural centres of Renaissance.

不像无论是由古典议会还是君主统治的其他国家和城邦,威尼斯是由一个商人联邦统治的。也就是说,商人当时把持着威尼斯的政权。威尼斯以其优美的环境和复杂的水路运输系统而闻名于世。尽管她在文艺复兴时期由于十字军东征的失败而衰落,但她仍然是文艺复兴时期的文化中心之一。

 

Paris: Perhaps the most famous achievement of Paris during Renaissance is its development of make-ups and jewelries. These inventions were motivated by the idea that human beings should value themselves more than anything, even the holy one above. However, there are figures like Montaigne and Francois Rabelais who created great works such as “ Les essais de Michel de Montaigne” and “Gargantua et Pantagruel”, made Paris another centre of Renaissance.

巴黎:也许巴黎在文艺复兴时期最著名的成就就是发展了化妆品和珠宝。当时盛行的人文主义宣扬人们应当注重自己的生活超过对上帝的崇拜,而这就成为了巴黎在这些方面的发展的动机。然而,在文学上巴黎也有像蒙田和弗朗索瓦·拉伯雷这样创造了伟大的作品的人物,如“Les essais de Michel de Montaigne”和“巨人传”。所有的这一切一起将巴黎变成了文艺复兴时期的另一个中心。

 

London: This city is famous for only one figure in the whole Renaissance, yet this one figure is forever famous, and he is the most influential in the whole English literature history. He is William Shakespeare. Many great plays, poems, passages were created by him, and he put supreme glory to this whole city. Besides, Sir Thomas More was also a representative figure of London. He is famous for his work “Utopia” and his Utopian Socialism.

Other than its cultural achievements, London was also a scientific city during Renaissance. The basic form of modern capitalism was established in London in 16th century. The representative was the cotton factory, which divided the work and cooperated with one another, to achieve higher productivity.

伦敦:这座城市在整个文艺复兴时期只有一位异常著名的人物,但伦敦只需要这一位来流芳百世,他是整个英国文学史上最有影响力的人物。他就是,威廉·莎士比亚。他创作了许多伟大的戏剧、诗歌、短文,比如麦克白、哈姆雷特、以及数不清的十四行诗。他的著作几乎都家喻户晓。可以说他给这座城市带来了无限荣耀。此外,托马斯爵士也是伦敦的代表人物。他以他的著作“乌托邦”和空想社会主义闻名于世。

除了文艺成就,文艺复兴时期的伦敦也是一座科学和工业城市。通过研究发现,现代资本主义的基本形式,即流水线生产,是于十六世纪在伦敦建立的。形式的代表是棉厂,他们分工协作,以取得更高的生产力。

PART THREE: REPRESENTATIVE FIGURES

Leonardo da Vinci: The greatest artists ever known. He created numerous art works, like  Mona Lisa. He also achieved much in architecture, astronomy, science and the like. There is no need of intrigue description but just one word that is enough for him: Polymath.

达·芬奇:有史以来最伟大的艺术家。他创作了许多艺术作品,如蒙娜丽莎。他在建筑学、天文学、科学等方面也取得了很大成就。对于他,我们根本不需要太多的描述,只需一个词:博学家。

 

Shakespeare: As another astonishing figure in the history, it is generally agreed that he created the modern English Literature. The leftover of his creation includes 39 plays, 154 sonnets and 2 long narrative poems. Compared to his contemporaries, Shakespeare faced less trouble with living, which enabled him to constantly focus on his literary work. Although the language he used, the Middle English, was a difficult one to people nowadays, what he wrote was actually not for a high level taste. His work was never hard to understand to poor people, and there were even vulgar words appeared. After all, he was a great writer, but he was not entirely a servant of aristocracy and Royalty. His work influenced generations and generations, and there is no need to tell his importance on the inner world of the human race.

莎士比亚:作为历史上另一个惊人的人物,他被普遍认为中古英语文学和现代英语文学的分界线。自他之后,英语文学迈入了现代。他的创作包括39部戏剧、154首十四行诗和2首长篇叙事诗。与他同时代的文学家相比,莎士比亚在生活上遇到的麻烦和烦心事更少,这使他能够专注于自己的文学作品。虽然他所使用的语言,中古英语,对现在的人们来说是很难理解的,但他的作品实际上并不是一种高品位的东西。他的作品的主要受众群基本是中下级阶层,而这些作品里甚至还有极为粗俗的语言出现。他流芳百世,只不过是因为上流社会也十分欣赏他的文学作品罢了。他的作品影响了十几二十代人,而且这种影响还会继续。他的重要性也无需再赘述了。

Michelangelo Buonarroti: One of the greatest sculptor in the world. His sculpture techniques were even admired and worshipped nowadays, when technology is gradually being capable of everything. His life as a sculptor commenced since 13 years old. He worked as apprentice of Ghirlandaio, and then he attended the college of Medici in Florence. After Lorenzo Medici, his protector, died, Michelangelo felt the necessity to leave his home and to start somewhere else. Then he arrived in Rome, in which he achieved mastery in sculpture.

People nowadays know much about his works: David, Sistine Chapel ceiling, Piéta and so on. All of these were created with price, and that price is Michelangelo’s health. Years of working with head uplifting brought about great ache in Michelangelo’s neck, and according to the servants, “ He even had to lift the letters over his head to read, or he will suffer greater pain…”. All of these should remind us of that not only his work and techniques matter, but also his great persistence and devotedness matter. That is the reason why he is respected as one of the greatest sculptors in the world, and in the history.

Michelangelo Buonarroti:世界上最伟大的雕塑家。如今,当高科技已经逐渐可以达到艺术家的一切要求的时候,他的雕塑技术仍然受到人们的钦佩和崇拜。米开朗基罗从13岁起就开始了雕刻家生涯。他当过著名雕塑家Ghirlandaio的学徒,然后他还去了佛罗伦萨的美第奇学院。他的赞助人兼保护人,洛伦佐·美第奇死后,米切朗基罗觉得他有必要离开他的家乡,在一个新的地方重新开始。之后,他到达罗马,在那里他继续学习,并最终精通了雕塑。

现在的人们基本熟知他的很多作品:大卫,创世纪和Pieta等。这些伟大的作品都是用一个代价换来的,那就是米开朗基罗他本人的健康。多年来的创作,给米切朗基罗的脖子带来了顽疾,和无法忍受的疼痛。据他的仆人说,“他甚至不得不把信举过头顶去读,否则他将承受更大的痛苦……”。所有这些都提醒我们,米开朗基罗之所以被称为历史上最伟大的雕塑家,不仅仅是因为他精湛的技术,更是因为他那超越自我的伟大奉献精神。

III. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO REPRESENTATIVE EVENTS, CITIES AND LEADING FIGURES OF RENAISSANCE

PART ONE: REPRESENTATIVE EVENTS

The development of Renaissance is more like a chain, which is linked by junctures and lines. For Renaissance, the junctures are the events, and the line is its gradual spread in Europe.

The first event was the emergence of writing, which took place in the late 13th century Florence, in particular with the writing of Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) and Petrarch(1304-1374), as well as the paintings of Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). These writings and arts got out of the cage of religious writing and art of the Medieval Age. A perfect example is Dante’s “Divine Comedy”, which indirectly attacked the obscurantism of Roman Catholicism. The classicism that was objected by the Catholics, was canonised in this great poem. Dante showed his great pursuit to the truth and learning, and intrepidness to the consequences of pursuing knowledge. His spirit became the main ideology of the whole Renaissance, and as the movement went on, many a figure fought and died for this spirit.

文艺复兴的发展更像是一根链条,它是由点和线组成的。在文艺复兴时期,点就是事件,而线就是这些事件在欧洲范围内逐渐起到的影响。

第一个事件就是新时代文学的出现。这一事件伊始于十三世纪下旬的佛罗伦萨,代表人物和作品有阿利盖利·但丁(1265-1321)的文学作品、彼特拉克(1304-1374)以及乔托·迪·邦多纳的画(1267-1337)。这些著作和艺术摆脱了中世纪宗教文学和艺术的牢笼。一个完美的例子就是是但丁的《神曲》,这部伟大的作品间接攻击了罗马教宗所奉行的蒙昧主义。被天主教所否认和践踏的古典主义,在这部作品中被大加推崇。但丁在神曲中展示了他执着追求和学习真理,无畏地追求知识的伟大精神。他的精神成为整个文艺复兴时期的主要意识形态。随着运动的进行,许多人都为了这种精神而战斗和死亡。

The second event was the Great Voyage Age. The disappearance of Silk Road and chaos in Middle East in the late 15th century forced Europeans to develop a new route to China and India. This route is from Europe, going around Africa, and eventually to India and China. The development of this route in fact led to the discovery of America and South Africa, and thus paved the road to the Age of Colonisation.

第二个事件就是著名的大航海时代。十五世纪末,经过中东的丝绸之路因阿拉伯帝国的混乱争端而中断,迫使欧洲人建立去往中国和印度的新道路。这条路线是从欧洲出发,绕过非洲,最后到达印度和中国。事实上,这条路线的发展导致了美洲大陆和南非的发现,从而为大殖民时代铺平了道路。

The last event of Renaissance is the various Capitalist Revolutions. These revolutions are evenly scattered in most of the European countries, like The British Empire, France, Russia, Italy, Spain, Poland, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark,Sweden, and Netherlands. Some succeeded, yet some were crashed by the loyalists and Royalties. The revolutions served as the mark of Renaissance’s ending, since its goal was then fulfilled: To root the idea of progress into Europeans, and to topple the reign of Roman Catholicism.

文艺复兴的最后一件大事是各种资本主义革命。这些革命均匀地分散在欧洲各地,如大英帝国,法国,俄罗斯,意大利,西班牙,波兰,丹麦王国,神圣罗马帝国,瑞典王国和荷兰。有些成功了,但有些被皇室及其追随者所击败。资本主义革命标志着文艺复兴的结束,因为它的目标实现了:将进步的思想扎根于欧洲人心中,并推翻罗马教宗的统治。

PART TWO: REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

 

Florence: The origins and centre of Renaissance. Under the support of Medici Family, the ruler of Florence, many ideologies and new inventions were developed here. For example, the print shops in Florence were the first ones in Europe that printed books extensively, and these shops enabled the fast spread of new knowledge to France, Germany, Poland and Britain. Plus, it also outcompeted the clergies in the churches that copied the book, and thus weakened the influence of church.

Besides, Florence is also the stage of many artists and famous figures in Renaissance, such as Leonardo da Vinci, Machiavelli, and Michelangelo. These figures achieved some of their most famous works in Florence, and all those works glorified this city.

佛罗伦萨:文艺复兴的起源和中心。在当权者美第奇家族的支持下,许多思想和新发明都是在这里出现的。例如,佛罗伦萨的印刷工厂是欧洲第一个成规模的印刷产业,这些商店使新知得以法国、德国、波兰和英国等地迅速传播开来。另外,这种产业也要比神职人员在教堂手抄快,从而就削弱了教会对社会的影响。

此外,佛罗伦萨也是文艺复兴时期许多艺术家和名人的舞台,如达·芬奇、马基雅维利和米切朗基罗。这些人在佛罗伦萨成就了他们的一些最著名的作品,而且所有这些作品都使这个城市变得美丽动人。

                                                                                                                                                

Venice: Serving as one of the most important Ports in Europe, Venice actually appeared to be the most advanced during the Renaissance. Unlike other countries and city-states, which were ruled by either councils or monarchs, Venice was under the rule of a Merchant Commonwealth. That is, merchants ruled Venice at that time. Venice is always famous for its beautiful environments and sophisticated water transportation systems. Although Venice was on the way of declination in Renaissance due to its failure in Crusades, it was still one of the cultural centres of Renaissance.

不像无论是由古典议会还是君主统治的其他国家和城邦,威尼斯是由一个商人联邦统治的。也就是说,商人当时把持着威尼斯的政权。威尼斯以其优美的环境和复杂的水路运输系统而闻名于世。尽管她在文艺复兴时期由于十字军东征的失败而衰落,但她仍然是文艺复兴时期的文化中心之一。

 

Paris: Perhaps the most famous achievement of Paris during Renaissance is its development of make-ups and jewelries. These inventions were motivated by the idea that human beings should value themselves more than anything, even the holy one above. However, there are figures like Montaigne and Francois Rabelais who created great works such as “ Les essais de Michel de Montaigne” and “Gargantua et Pantagruel”, made Paris another centre of Renaissance.

巴黎:也许巴黎在文艺复兴时期最著名的成就就是发展了化妆品和珠宝。当时盛行的人文主义宣扬人们应当注重自己的生活超过对上帝的崇拜,而这就成为了巴黎在这些方面的发展的动机。然而,在文学上巴黎也有像蒙田和弗朗索瓦·拉伯雷这样创造了伟大的作品的人物,如“Les essais de Michel de Montaigne”和“巨人传”。所有的这一切一起将巴黎变成了文艺复兴时期的另一个中心。

 

London: This city is famous for only one figure in the whole Renaissance, yet this one figure is forever famous, and he is the most influential in the whole English literature history. He is William Shakespeare. Many great plays, poems, passages were created by him, and he put supreme glory to this whole city. Besides, Sir Thomas More was also a representative figure of London. He is famous for his work “Utopia” and his Utopian Socialism.

Other than its cultural achievements, London was also a scientific city during Renaissance. The basic form of modern capitalism was established in London in 16th century. The representative was the cotton factory, which divided the work and cooperated with one another, to achieve higher productivity.

伦敦:这座城市在整个文艺复兴时期只有一位异常著名的人物,但伦敦只需要这一位来流芳百世,他是整个英国文学史上最有影响力的人物。他就是,威廉·莎士比亚。他创作了许多伟大的戏剧、诗歌、短文,比如麦克白、哈姆雷特、以及数不清的十四行诗。他的著作几乎都家喻户晓。可以说他给这座城市带来了无限荣耀。此外,托马斯爵士也是伦敦的代表人物。他以他的著作“乌托邦”和空想社会主义闻名于世。

除了文艺成就,文艺复兴时期的伦敦也是一座科学和工业城市。通过研究发现,现代资本主义的基本形式,即流水线生产,是于十六世纪在伦敦建立的。形式的代表是棉厂,他们分工协作,以取得更高的生产力。

PART THREE: REPRESENTATIVE FIGURES

Leonardo da Vinci: The greatest artists ever known. He created numerous art works, like  Mona Lisa. He also achieved much in architecture, astronomy, science and the like. There is no need of intrigue description but just one word that is enough for him: Polymath.

达·芬奇:有史以来最伟大的艺术家。他创作了许多艺术作品,如蒙娜丽莎。他在建筑学、天文学、科学等方面也取得了很大成就。对于他,我们根本不需要太多的描述,只需一个词:博学家。

 

Shakespeare: As another astonishing figure in the history, it is generally agreed that he created the modern English Literature. The leftover of his creation includes 39 plays, 154 sonnets and 2 long narrative poems. Compared to his contemporaries, Shakespeare faced less trouble with living, which enabled him to constantly focus on his literary work. Although the language he used, the Middle English, was a difficult one to people nowadays, what he wrote was actually not for a high level taste. His work was never hard to understand to poor people, and there were even vulgar words appeared. After all, he was a great writer, but he was not entirely a servant of aristocracy and Royalty. His work influenced generations and generations, and there is no need to tell his importance on the inner world of the human race.

莎士比亚:作为历史上另一个惊人的人物,他被普遍认为中古英语文学和现代英语文学的分界线。自他之后,英语文学迈入了现代。他的创作包括39部戏剧、154首十四行诗和2首长篇叙事诗。与他同时代的文学家相比,莎士比亚在生活上遇到的麻烦和烦心事更少,这使他能够专注于自己的文学作品。虽然他所使用的语言,中古英语,对现在的人们来说是很难理解的,但他的作品实际上并不是一种高品位的东西。他的作品的主要受众群基本是中下级阶层,而这些作品里甚至还有极为粗俗的语言出现。他流芳百世,只不过是因为上流社会也十分欣赏他的文学作品罢了。他的作品影响了十几二十代人,而且这种影响还会继续。他的重要性也无需再赘述了。

Michelangelo Buonarroti: One of the greatest sculptor in the world. His sculpture techniques were even admired and worshipped nowadays, when technology is gradually being capable of everything. His life as a sculptor commenced since 13 years old. He worked as apprentice of Ghirlandaio, and then he attended the college of Medici in Florence. After Lorenzo Medici, his protector, died, Michelangelo felt the necessity to leave his home and to start somewhere else. Then he arrived in Rome, in which he achieved mastery in sculpture.

People nowadays know much about his works: David, Sistine Chapel ceiling, Piéta and so on. All of these were created with price, and that price is Michelangelo’s health. Years of working with head uplifting brought about great ache in Michelangelo’s neck, and according to the servants, “ He even had to lift the letters over his head to read, or he will suffer greater pain…”. All of these should remind us of that not only his work and techniques matter, but also his great persistence and devotedness matter. That is the reason why he is respected as one of the greatest sculptors in the world, and in the history.

Michelangelo Buonarroti:世界上最伟大的雕塑家。如今,当高科技已经逐渐可以达到艺术家的一切要求的时候,他的雕塑技术仍然受到人们的钦佩和崇拜。米开朗基罗从13岁起就开始了雕刻家生涯。他当过著名雕塑家Ghirlandaio的学徒,然后他还去了佛罗伦萨的美第奇学院。他的赞助人兼保护人,洛伦佐·美第奇死后,米切朗基罗觉得他有必要离开他的家乡,在一个新的地方重新开始。之后,他到达罗马,在那里他继续学习,并最终精通了雕塑。

现在的人们基本熟知他的很多作品:大卫,创世纪和Pieta等。这些伟大的作品都是用一个代价换来的,那就是米开朗基罗他本人的健康。多年来的创作,给米切朗基罗的脖子带来了顽疾,和无法忍受的疼痛。据他的仆人说,“他甚至不得不把信举过头顶去读,否则他将承受更大的痛苦……”。所有这些都提醒我们,米开朗基罗之所以被称为历史上最伟大的雕塑家,不仅仅是因为他精湛的技术,更是因为他那超越自我的伟大奉献精神。III. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO REPRESENTATIVE EVENTS, CITIES AND LEADING FIGURES OF RENAISSANCE

PART ONE: REPRESENTATIVE EVENTS

The development of Renaissance is more like a chain, which is linked by junctures and lines. For Renaissance, the junctures are the events, and the line is its gradual spread in Europe.

The first event was the emergence of writing, which took place in the late 13th century Florence, in particular with the writing of Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) and Petrarch(1304-1374), as well as the paintings of Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). These writings and arts got out of the cage of religious writing and art of the Medieval Age. A perfect example is Dante’s “Divine Comedy”, which indirectly attacked the obscurantism of Roman Catholicism. The classicism that was objected by the Catholics, was canonised in this great poem. Dante showed his great pursuit to the truth and learning, and intrepidness to the consequences of pursuing knowledge. His spirit became the main ideology of the whole Renaissance, and as the movement went on, many a figure fought and died for this spirit.

文艺复兴的发展更像是一根链条,它是由点和线组成的。在文艺复兴时期,点就是事件,而线就是这些事件在欧洲范围内逐渐起到的影响。

第一个事件就是新时代文学的出现。这一事件伊始于十三世纪下旬的佛罗伦萨,代表人物和作品有阿利盖利·但丁(1265-1321)的文学作品、彼特拉克(1304-1374)以及乔托·迪·邦多纳的画(1267-1337)。这些著作和艺术摆脱了中世纪宗教文学和艺术的牢笼。一个完美的例子就是是但丁的《神曲》,这部伟大的作品间接攻击了罗马教宗所奉行的蒙昧主义。被天主教所否认和践踏的古典主义,在这部作品中被大加推崇。但丁在神曲中展示了他执着追求和学习真理,无畏地追求知识的伟大精神。他的精神成为整个文艺复兴时期的主要意识形态。随着运动的进行,许多人都为了这种精神而战斗和死亡。

The second event was the Great Voyage Age. The disappearance of Silk Road and chaos in Middle East in the late 15th century forced Europeans to develop a new route to China and India. This route is from Europe, going around Africa, and eventually to India and China. The development of this route in fact led to the discovery of America and South Africa, and thus paved the road to the Age of Colonisation.

第二个事件就是著名的大航海时代。十五世纪末,经过中东的丝绸之路因阿拉伯帝国的混乱争端而中断,迫使欧洲人建立去往中国和印度的新道路。这条路线是从欧洲出发,绕过非洲,最后到达印度和中国。事实上,这条路线的发展导致了美洲大陆和南非的发现,从而为大殖民时代铺平了道路。

The last event of Renaissance is the various Capitalist Revolutions. These revolutions are evenly scattered in most of the European countries, like The British Empire, France, Russia, Italy, Spain, Poland, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark,Sweden, and Netherlands. Some succeeded, yet some were crashed by the loyalists and Royalties. The revolutions served as the mark of Renaissance’s ending, since its goal was then fulfilled: To root the idea of progress into Europeans, and to topple the reign of Roman Catholicism.

文艺复兴的最后一件大事是各种资本主义革命。这些革命均匀地分散在欧洲各地,如大英帝国,法国,俄罗斯,意大利,西班牙,波兰,丹麦王国,神圣罗马帝国,瑞典王国和荷兰。有些成功了,但有些被皇室及其追随者所击败。资本主义革命标志着文艺复兴的结束,因为它的目标实现了:将进步的思想扎根于欧洲人心中,并推翻罗马教宗的统治。

PART TWO: REPRESENTATIVE CITIES

 

Florence: The origins and centre of Renaissance. Under the support of Medici Family, the ruler of Florence, many ideologies and new inventions were developed here. For example, the print shops in Florence were the first ones in Europe that printed books extensively, and these shops enabled the fast spread of new knowledge to France, Germany, Poland and Britain. Plus, it also outcompeted the clergies in the churches that copied the book, and thus weakened the influence of church.

Besides, Florence is also the stage of many artists and famous figures in Renaissance, such as Leonardo da Vinci, Machiavelli, and Michelangelo. These figures achieved some of their most famous works in Florence, and all those works glorified this city.

佛罗伦萨:文艺复兴的起源和中心。在当权者美第奇家族的支持下,许多思想和新发明都是在这里出现的。例如,佛罗伦萨的印刷工厂是欧洲第一个成规模的印刷产业,这些商店使新知得以法国、德国、波兰和英国等地迅速传播开来。另外,这种产业也要比神职人员在教堂手抄快,从而就削弱了教会对社会的影响。

此外,佛罗伦萨也是文艺复兴时期许多艺术家和名人的舞台,如达·芬奇、马基雅维利和米切朗基罗。这些人在佛罗伦萨成就了他们的一些最著名的作品,而且所有这些作品都使这个城市变得美丽动人。

                                                                                                                                                

Venice: Serving as one of the most important Ports in Europe, Venice actually appeared to be the most advanced during the Renaissance. Unlike other countries and city-states, which were ruled by either councils or monarchs, Venice was under the rule of a Merchant Commonwealth. That is, merchants ruled Venice at that time. Venice is always famous for its beautiful environments and sophisticated water transportation systems. Although Venice was on the way of declination in Renaissance due to its failure in Crusades, it was still one of the cultural centres of Renaissance.

不像无论是由古典议会还是君主统治的其他国家和城邦,威尼斯是由一个商人联邦统治的。也就是说,商人当时把持着威尼斯的政权。威尼斯以其优美的环境和复杂的水路运输系统而闻名于世。尽管她在文艺复兴时期由于十字军东征的失败而衰落,但她仍然是文艺复兴时期的文化中心之一。

 

Paris: Perhaps the most famous achievement of Paris during Renaissance is its development of make-ups and jewelries. These inventions were motivated by the idea that human beings should value themselves more than anything, even the holy one above. However, there are figures like Montaigne and Francois Rabelais who created great works such as “ Les essais de Michel de Montaigne” and “Gargantua et Pantagruel”, made Paris another centre of Renaissance.

巴黎:也许巴黎在文艺复兴时期最著名的成就就是发展了化妆品和珠宝。当时盛行的人文主义宣扬人们应当注重自己的生活超过对上帝的崇拜,而这就成为了巴黎在这些方面的发展的动机。然而,在文学上巴黎也有像蒙田和弗朗索瓦·拉伯雷这样创造了伟大的作品的人物,如“Les essais de Michel de Montaigne”和“巨人传”。所有的这一切一起将巴黎变成了文艺复兴时期的另一个中心。

 

London: This city is famous for only one figure in the whole Renaissance, yet this one figure is forever famous, and he is the most influential in the whole English literature history. He is William Shakespeare. Many great plays, poems, passages were created by him, and he put supreme glory to this whole city. Besides, Sir Thomas More was also a representative figure of London. He is famous for his work “Utopia” and his Utopian Socialism.

Other than its cultural achievements, London was also a scientific city during Renaissance. The basic form of modern capitalism was established in London in 16th century. The representative was the cotton factory, which divided the work and cooperated with one another, to achieve higher productivity.

伦敦:这座城市在整个文艺复兴时期只有一位异常著名的人物,但伦敦只需要这一位来流芳百世,他是整个英国文学史上最有影响力的人物。他就是,威廉·莎士比亚。他创作了许多伟大的戏剧、诗歌、短文,比如麦克白、哈姆雷特、以及数不清的十四行诗。他的著作几乎都家喻户晓。可以说他给这座城市带来了无限荣耀。此外,托马斯爵士也是伦敦的代表人物。他以他的著作“乌托邦”和空想社会主义闻名于世。

除了文艺成就,文艺复兴时期的伦敦也是一座科学和工业城市。通过研究发现,现代资本主义的基本形式,即流水线生产,是于十六世纪在伦敦建立的。形式的代表是棉厂,他们分工协作,以取得更高的生产力。

PART THREE: REPRESENTATIVE FIGURES

Leonardo da Vinci: The greatest artists ever known. He created numerous art works, like  Mona Lisa. He also achieved much in architecture, astronomy, science and the like. There is no need of intrigue description but just one word that is enough for him: Polymath.

达·芬奇:有史以来最伟大的艺术家。他创作了许多艺术作品,如蒙娜丽莎。他在建筑学、天文学、科学等方面也取得了很大成就。对于他,我们根本不需要太多的描述,只需一个词:博学家。

 

Shakespeare: As another astonishing figure in the history, it is generally agreed that he created the modern English Literature. The leftover of his creation includes 39 plays, 154 sonnets and 2 long narrative poems. Compared to his contemporaries, Shakespeare faced less trouble with living, which enabled him to constantly focus on his literary work. Although the language he used, the Middle English, was a difficult one to people nowadays, what he wrote was actually not for a high level taste. His work was never hard to understand to poor people, and there were even vulgar words appeared. After all, he was a great writer, but he was not entirely a servant of aristocracy and Royalty. His work influenced generations and generations, and there is no need to tell his importance on the inner world of the human race.

莎士比亚:作为历史上另一个惊人的人物,他被普遍认为中古英语文学和现代英语文学的分界线。自他之后,英语文学迈入了现代。他的创作包括39部戏剧、154首十四行诗和2首长篇叙事诗。与他同时代的文学家相比,莎士比亚在生活上遇到的麻烦和烦心事更少,这使他能够专注于自己的文学作品。虽然他所使用的语言,中古英语,对现在的人们来说是很难理解的,但他的作品实际上并不是一种高品位的东西。他的作品的主要受众群基本是中下级阶层,而这些作品里甚至还有极为粗俗的语言出现。他流芳百世,只不过是因为上流社会也十分欣赏他的文学作品罢了。他的作品影响了十几二十代人,而且这种影响还会继续。他的重要性也无需再赘述了。

Michelangelo Buonarroti: One of the greatest sculptor in the world. His sculpture techniques were even admired and worshipped nowadays, when technology is gradually being capable of everything. His life as a sculptor commenced since 13 years old. He worked as apprentice of Ghirlandaio, and then he attended the college of Medici in Florence. After Lorenzo Medici, his protector, died, Michelangelo felt the necessity to leave his home and to start somewhere else. Then he arrived in Rome, in which he achieved mastery in sculpture.

People nowadays know much about his works: David, Sistine Chapel ceiling, Piéta and so on. All of these were created with price, and that price is Michelangelo’s health. Years of working with head uplifting brought about great ache in Michelangelo’s neck, and according to the servants, “ He even had to lift the letters over his head to read, or he will suffer greater pain…”. All of these should remind us of that not only his work and techniques matter, but also his great persistence and devotedness matter. That is the reason why he is respected as one of the greatest sculptors in the world, and in the history.

Michelangelo Buonarroti:世界上最伟大的雕塑家。如今,当高科技已经逐渐可以达到艺术家的一切要求的时候,他的雕塑技术仍然受到人们的钦佩和崇拜。米开朗基罗从13岁起就开始了雕刻家生涯。他当过著名雕塑家Ghirlandaio的学徒,然后他还去了佛罗伦萨的美第奇学院。他的赞助人兼保护人,洛伦佐·美第奇死后,米切朗基罗觉得他有必要离开他的家乡,在一个新的地方重新开始。之后,他到达罗马,在那里他继续学习,并最终精通了雕塑。

现在的人们基本熟知他的很多作品:大卫,创世纪和Pieta等。这些伟大的作品都是用一个代价换来的,那就是米开朗基罗他本人的健康。多年来的创作,给米切朗基罗的脖子带来了顽疾,和无法忍受的疼痛。据他的仆人说,“他甚至不得不把信举过头顶去读,否则他将承受更大的痛苦……”。所有这些都提醒我们,米开朗基罗之所以被称为历史上最伟大的雕塑家,不仅仅是因为他精湛的技术,更是因为他那超越自我的伟大奉献精神。


IV. AN ANALYSIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL ELEMENTS’ AND HISTORICAL LEFTOVERS’  INFLUENCE ON RENAISSANCE

PART ONE: GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES’ INFLUENCE

Renaissance, as recognised by all, commenced in Italy. Italy in 14th century was declining. The gradual exploration of new route to Asia made Italy less important, because the new route did not travel through the Mediterranean Sea. In this circumstance, the Italians, who then realised their own emergency, were forced to make a change in whatever aspect to retain the influence of Italy. Meanwhile, the plague and famine that were prevailing in Europe in fact put a great burden on every country, because they all had to face the fact that their GDP were all dropping, while they had to invest even more into the saving of farmers and medication. Under this big background, Renaissance was necessary, or the whole Europe would go back for at least hundreds of years.

众所周知,文艺复兴始于意大利。而十四世纪的意大利正在衰落。在逐渐探索出到亚洲的新航线后,意大利变得不那么重要了,因为这条新航线不需要穿过地中海,所以意大利作为中转站的作用就没有了。在这种情况下,意大利人意识到了自己的紧急情况,不得不根本性地改变自己来保留意大利的影响力。同时,中世纪欧洲的瘟疫和饥荒事实上给每个国家都带来了沉重的负担。他们都不得不面对国内生产总值都在下降的事实,然而他们还得加大对农民和医院的投资救助。在这样的大背景下,文艺复兴是必要的,否则整个欧洲至少要回到到几百年前。  

PART TWO: HISTORICAL LEFTOVERS’ INFLUENCE

Upon Medieval Age, Catholics was the ruling force of Europe. All mighty power is under the control, and all civilians were ruled by the might of God. However, the messengers of God were a bit corrupted. They put high taxes on commoners, and

extort large sum of money and fantastic luxuries from aristocrats. As a result, the commoners were in extreme poverty, the aristocrats found themselves unable to even just maintain their house, while the clergies of the Church were so rich, that they ate the finest food from all over the world, and forgot the principles that the holy God taught them. The revolts appeared everywhere, and aristocrats were not able, and did not want to stop the revolts. The Church, on the other hand, ruthlessly oppressed people, and eliminated the importance of individual. The Church claimed that the very mind of individual does not matter in the eyes of God, and only that great achievement that is established by human beings, the tiny creature, would move the One above. People felt they were ignored, their culture was denied, so they found a great movement necessary.

中世纪时,天主教徒是欧洲的统治力量。所有强大的力量都在控制之下,所有的平民都被上帝的力量所统治。然而,这些神的使者有点堕落了。他们从贵族和平民那里榨取大笔金钱和奢侈品。因此,普通的老百姓在极端贫困的情况下苟活,而贵族们发现自己甚至连自己的房子都保不住。而教会的神职人员的生活是如此丰富,他们享用着来自世界各地的珍馐美味,而忘记了上帝教他们的原则。起义到处可见,贵族们没有能力,也不想停止起义。另一方面,教会无情地压迫人民,否定了了个人的重要性。教会声称,个人的心灵在上帝的眼中并不重要,只有人类这种微小生物所创造的伟大成就,才能让上帝为之动容从而降下恩泽。人们觉得他们被忽视了,他们的文化被剥夺了,所以他们认为一次大的文化运动必不可少。

 

PART THREE: CONCLUSION

Renaissance, as analysed above, is not an unreasonable movement. It was not carefully organised, instead it grew naturally, meeting the need of Europeans, specifically merchants, artists and new capitalists, who had direct contradiction with the Church.

正如上面所分析的那样,文艺复兴的发生并非偶然。它不是精心组织的,而是自然而然地发展起来,来满足欧洲人的需要。特别是商人、艺术家和新资本家,他们与教会有直接的矛盾。

IV. AN ANALYSIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL ELEMENTS’ AND HISTORICAL LEFTOVERS’  INFLUENCE ON RENAISSANCE

PART ONE: GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES’ INFLUENCE

Renaissance, as recognised by all, commenced in Italy. Italy in 14th century was declining. The gradual exploration of new route to Asia made Italy less important, because the new route did not travel through the Mediterranean Sea. In this circumstance, the Italians, who then realised their own emergency, were forced to make a change in whatever aspect to retain the influence of Italy. Meanwhile, the plague and famine that were prevailing in Europe in fact put a great burden on every country, because they all had to face the fact that their GDP were all dropping, while they had to invest even more into the saving of farmers and medication. Under this big background, Renaissance was necessary, or the whole Europe would go back for at least hundreds of years.

众所周知,文艺复兴始于意大利。而十四世纪的意大利正在衰落。在逐渐探索出到亚洲的新航线后,意大利变得不那么重要了,因为这条新航线不需要穿过地中海,所以意大利作为中转站的作用就没有了。在这种情况下,意大利人意识到了自己的紧急情况,不得不根本性地改变自己来保留意大利的影响力。同时,中世纪欧洲的瘟疫和饥荒事实上给每个国家都带来了沉重的负担。他们都不得不面对国内生产总值都在下降的事实,然而他们还得加大对农民和医院的投资救助。在这样的大背景下,文艺复兴是必要的,否则整个欧洲至少要回到到几百年前。  

PART TWO: HISTORICAL LEFTOVERS’ INFLUENCE

Upon Medieval Age, Catholics was the ruling force of Europe. All mighty power is under the control, and all civilians were ruled by the might of God. However, the messengers of God were a bit corrupted. They put high taxes on commoners, and

extort large sum of money and fantastic luxuries from aristocrats. As a result, the commoners were in extreme poverty, the aristocrats found themselves unable to even just maintain their house, while the clergies of the Church were so rich, that they ate the finest food from all over the world, and forgot the principles that the holy God taught them. The revolts appeared everywhere, and aristocrats were not able, and did not want to stop the revolts. The Church, on the other hand, ruthlessly oppressed people, and eliminated the importance of individual. The Church claimed that the very mind of individual does not matter in the eyes of God, and only that great achievement that is established by human beings, the tiny creature, would move the One above. People felt they were ignored, their culture was denied, so they found a great movement necessary.

中世纪时,天主教徒是欧洲的统治力量。所有强大的力量都在控制之下,所有的平民都被上帝的力量所统治。然而,这些神的使者有点堕落了。他们从贵族和平民那里榨取大笔金钱和奢侈品。因此,普通的老百姓在极端贫困的情况下苟活,而贵族们发现自己甚至连自己的房子都保不住。而教会的神职人员的生活是如此丰富,他们享用着来自世界各地的珍馐美味,而忘记了上帝教他们的原则。起义到处可见,贵族们没有能力,也不想停止起义。另一方面,教会无情地压迫人民,否定了了个人的重要性。教会声称,个人的心灵在上帝的眼中并不重要,只有人类这种微小生物所创造的伟大成就,才能让上帝为之动容从而降下恩泽。人们觉得他们被忽视了,他们的文化被剥夺了,所以他们认为一次大的文化运动必不可少。

 

PART THREE: CONCLUSION

Renaissance, as analysed above, is not an unreasonable movement. It was not carefully organised, instead it grew naturally, meeting the need of Europeans, specifically merchants, artists and new capitalists, who had direct contradiction with the Church.

正如上面所分析的那样,文艺复兴的发生并非偶然。它不是精心组织的,而是自然而然地发展起来,来满足欧洲人的需要。特别是商人、艺术家和新资本家,他们与教会有直接的矛盾。


V. INFLUENCE LEFT BY THE RENAISSANCE

Renaissance, as it lasted for over two centuries, left great influence.

First of all, it paved the road for capitalist revolutions in 17th and 18th century, and even for the Industrialisation. Renaissance freed the mind of people, taught them to be self-appreciating, taught them to love and to be loved, and taught them to accept the truth and knowledge, with whatever consequences may hide. This spirit led Europeans to a future of exploration, and thus the great evolution of science and many other aspects.

What’s more, it made up the foundation of Western culture. Renaissance was to re-establish the prosperity of humanism and art during the Classical Age, and modern Western culture is built up on the traditional classical culture in its entirety. What are applauded by today’s Western culture, including free speech, equality between races and sex were also what Romans and Greeks pursued. In such sense, Renaissance means much more than just a cultural and ideological movement, it is indeed the starter of modern Western culture.

Last but not least, Renaissance did bring about bad consequences, which still exist nowadays in some richest parts of the world. Although the wish to emphasise the importance of humanism was correct, Renaissance went too far on that emphasising. The thought of being independent and being oneself converted to be “enjoying” oneself and ignoring the community. Therefore, in the end of Renaissance, most of bourgeois(middle-level people) started to pursue a path of life rich in material. The need of luxuries and other objects that reflected pride and dignity was promoted much in a relevantly short time, and thus brought about the corruption of mind. Lots of capital was put to luxury exchange, and the infrastructure and other things that most of the commoners were in need were ignored to some extent(They were still being developed, anyway). All of these turned out to be a modern trend: people, particularly youths, are gradually losing their empathy, and rising their own narcissism. Under such circumstance, the concept development of “community” is becoming harder, and the society is inevitably being split apart. Therefore, Renaissance did bring about positive influences to modern society, while the negative counterparts shall not be forgotten, and they should be solved as fast as could.

In sum, Renaissance is one of the most important movements in Western, and in World History. It is a gap point to connect the modern history and ancient history, and it brings about various influences that make a worldwide difference. However, all of the notions and details that writer(s) state in this passage is from one or at least a minority of perspectives, and thereby forming a relevantly ex parte viewpoint to this enormous change in the history. The writer(s) hopes that readers can point out the mistakes or statements that are not concise or accurate enough, and will be more than delighted and honoured to hear the suggestions.

文艺复兴持续了两个多世纪,留下了巨大的影响。

首先,它为第十七和十八世纪的资本主义革命铺平了道路,甚至为工业革命铺平了道路。文艺复兴解放了人们的思想,教导他们要自我欣赏,教导他们去爱和被爱,教会他们接受真理和知识,无论后果如何。这种精神使欧洲人有了探索的动力,从而推动了科学的伟大发展和其他方面的进步。

更重要的是,它奠定了西方文化的基础。文艺复兴旨在重建古典时期人文主义和艺术的繁荣,而现代西方文化则是以传统的古典文化为整体建立起来的。今天的西方文化,包括言论自由、种族平等和性别平等,都是罗马人和希腊人所带起来的。从这个意义上说,文艺复兴不仅仅意味着一种文化和意识形态的运动,它确实是现代西方文化的开端。

最后,文艺复兴确实带来了不良后果,至今仍存在于世界上一些最富裕的地区。虽然强调人文主义重要性的愿望是正确的,但文艺复兴过于强调这一点。独立自主的思想转变为“享受”自己而忽视社会。因此,在文艺复兴时期的结束,大多数资产阶级(中层的人)开始追求丰富的物质生活的路径。这体现的所谓尊严仅仅是在一个相对短的时间内拥有了更多奢侈品和其他东西的虚荣心满足,而这从而带来心灵的腐败。大量资本投入奢侈品交换,以及基础设施和其他的东西,最普通的老百姓在一定程度上需要被忽略。所有这些都是一种现代趋势:人们,尤其是年轻人,逐渐丧失了同理心,并更加孤芳自赏。在这种情况下,“社区”的概念发展越来越困难,社会不可避免地被割裂。因此,文艺复兴对现代社会产生了积极的影响,消极的不应被遗忘,应该尽快解决。

总之,文艺复兴运动是西方乃至世界历史上最重要的运动之一。这是连接近代史与古代史的一个鸿沟,它带来了世界性差异的各种影响。然而,所有这些作者的观念和细节在这一段是一个相对片面的观点。作者希望读者能指出那些不够简明或准确的错误或陈述,并为能听到这些建议而感到高兴和荣幸。

 

 

Signed, Gary Gustav Sun(President of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS), Sasha Zhao(Italian culture Consultant), Patrick Jiang(Vice President), Dilis Wu(Vice President)and all members of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS.

V. INFLUENCE LEFT BY THE RENAISSANCE

Renaissance, as it lasted for over two centuries, left great influence.

First of all, it paved the road for capitalist revolutions in 17th and 18th century, and even for the Industrialisation. Renaissance freed the mind of people, taught them to be self-appreciating, taught them to love and to be loved, and taught them to accept the truth and knowledge, with whatever consequences may hide. This spirit led Europeans to a future of exploration, and thus the great evolution of science and many other aspects.

What’s more, it made up the foundation of Western culture. Renaissance was to re-establish the prosperity of humanism and art during the Classical Age, and modern Western culture is built up on the traditional classical culture in its entirety. What are applauded by today’s Western culture, including free speech, equality between races and sex were also what Romans and Greeks pursued. In such sense, Renaissance means much more than just a cultural and ideological movement, it is indeed the starter of modern Western culture.

Last but not least, Renaissance did bring about bad consequences, which still exist nowadays in some richest parts of the world. Although the wish to emphasise the importance of humanism was correct, Renaissance went too far on that emphasising. The thought of being independent and being oneself converted to be “enjoying” oneself and ignoring the community. Therefore, in the end of Renaissance, most of bourgeois(middle-level people) started to pursue a path of life rich in material. The need of luxuries and other objects that reflected pride and dignity was promoted much in a relevantly short time, and thus brought about the corruption of mind. Lots of capital was put to luxury exchange, and the infrastructure and other things that most of the commoners were in need were ignored to some extent(They were still being developed, anyway). All of these turned out to be a modern trend: people, particularly youths, are gradually losing their empathy, and rising their own narcissism. Under such circumstance, the concept development of “community” is becoming harder, and the society is inevitably being split apart. Therefore, Renaissance did bring about positive influences to modern society, while the negative counterparts shall not be forgotten, and they should be solved as fast as could.

In sum, Renaissance is one of the most important movements in Western, and in World History. It is a gap point to connect the modern history and ancient history, and it brings about various influences that make a worldwide difference. However, all of the notions and details that writer(s) state in this passage is from one or at least a minority of perspectives, and thereby forming a relevantly ex parte viewpoint to this enormous change in the history. The writer(s) hopes that readers can point out the mistakes or statements that are not concise or accurate enough, and will be more than delighted and honoured to hear the suggestions.

文艺复兴持续了两个多世纪,留下了巨大的影响。

首先,它为第十七和十八世纪的资本主义革命铺平了道路,甚至为工业革命铺平了道路。文艺复兴解放了人们的思想,教导他们要自我欣赏,教导他们去爱和被爱,教会他们接受真理和知识,无论后果如何。这种精神使欧洲人有了探索的动力,从而推动了科学的伟大发展和其他方面的进步。

更重要的是,它奠定了西方文化的基础。文艺复兴旨在重建古典时期人文主义和艺术的繁荣,而现代西方文化则是以传统的古典文化为整体建立起来的。今天的西方文化,包括言论自由、种族平等和性别平等,都是罗马人和希腊人所带起来的。从这个意义上说,文艺复兴不仅仅意味着一种文化和意识形态的运动,它确实是现代西方文化的开端。

最后,文艺复兴确实带来了不良后果,至今仍存在于世界上一些最富裕的地区。虽然强调人文主义重要性的愿望是正确的,但文艺复兴过于强调这一点。独立自主的思想转变为“享受”自己而忽视社会。因此,在文艺复兴时期的结束,大多数资产阶级(中层的人)开始追求丰富的物质生活的路径。这体现的所谓尊严仅仅是在一个相对短的时间内拥有了更多奢侈品和其他东西的虚荣心满足,而这从而带来心灵的腐败。大量资本投入奢侈品交换,以及基础设施和其他的东西,最普通的老百姓在一定程度上需要被忽略。所有这些都是一种现代趋势:人们,尤其是年轻人,逐渐丧失了同理心,并更加孤芳自赏。在这种情况下,“社区”的概念发展越来越困难,社会不可避免地被割裂。因此,文艺复兴对现代社会产生了积极的影响,消极的不应被遗忘,应该尽快解决。

总之,文艺复兴运动是西方乃至世界历史上最重要的运动之一。这是连接近代史与古代史的一个鸿沟,它带来了世界性差异的各种影响。然而,所有这些作者的观念和细节在这一段是一个相对片面的观点。作者希望读者能指出那些不够简明或准确的错误或陈述,并为能听到这些建议而感到高兴和荣幸。

 

 

Signed, Gary Gustav Sun(President of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS), Sasha Zhao(Italian culture Consultant), Patrick Jiang(Vice President), Dilis Wu(Vice President)and all members of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS.

V. INFLUENCE LEFT BY THE RENAISSANCE

Renaissance, as it lasted for over two centuries, left great influence.

First of all, it paved the road for capitalist revolutions in 17th and 18th century, and even for the Industrialisation. Renaissance freed the mind of people, taught them to be self-appreciating, taught them to love and to be loved, and taught them to accept the truth and knowledge, with whatever consequences may hide. This spirit led Europeans to a future of exploration, and thus the great evolution of science and many other aspects.

What’s more, it made up the foundation of Western culture. Renaissance was to re-establish the prosperity of humanism and art during the Classical Age, and modern Western culture is built up on the traditional classical culture in its entirety. What are applauded by today’s Western culture, including free speech, equality between races and sex were also what Romans and Greeks pursued. In such sense, Renaissance means much more than just a cultural and ideological movement, it is indeed the starter of modern Western culture.

Last but not least, Renaissance did bring about bad consequences, which still exist nowadays in some richest parts of the world. Although the wish to emphasise the importance of humanism was correct, Renaissance went too far on that emphasising. The thought of being independent and being oneself converted to be “enjoying” oneself and ignoring the community. Therefore, in the end of Renaissance, most of bourgeois(middle-level people) started to pursue a path of life rich in material. The need of luxuries and other objects that reflected pride and dignity was promoted much in a relevantly short time, and thus brought about the corruption of mind. Lots of capital was put to luxury exchange, and the infrastructure and other things that most of the commoners were in need were ignored to some extent(They were still being developed, anyway). All of these turned out to be a modern trend: people, particularly youths, are gradually losing their empathy, and rising their own narcissism. Under such circumstance, the concept development of “community” is becoming harder, and the society is inevitably being split apart. Therefore, Renaissance did bring about positive influences to modern society, while the negative counterparts shall not be forgotten, and they should be solved as fast as could.

In sum, Renaissance is one of the most important movements in Western, and in World History. It is a gap point to connect the modern history and ancient history, and it brings about various influences that make a worldwide difference. However, all of the notions and details that writer(s) state in this passage is from one or at least a minority of perspectives, and thereby forming a relevantly ex parte viewpoint to this enormous change in the history. The writer(s) hopes that readers can point out the mistakes or statements that are not concise or accurate enough, and will be more than delighted and honoured to hear the suggestions.

文艺复兴持续了两个多世纪,留下了巨大的影响。

首先,它为第十七和十八世纪的资本主义革命铺平了道路,甚至为工业革命铺平了道路。文艺复兴解放了人们的思想,教导他们要自我欣赏,教导他们去爱和被爱,教会他们接受真理和知识,无论后果如何。这种精神使欧洲人有了探索的动力,从而推动了科学的伟大发展和其他方面的进步。

更重要的是,它奠定了西方文化的基础。文艺复兴旨在重建古典时期人文主义和艺术的繁荣,而现代西方文化则是以传统的古典文化为整体建立起来的。今天的西方文化,包括言论自由、种族平等和性别平等,都是罗马人和希腊人所带起来的。从这个意义上说,文艺复兴不仅仅意味着一种文化和意识形态的运动,它确实是现代西方文化的开端。

最后,文艺复兴确实带来了不良后果,至今仍存在于世界上一些最富裕的地区。虽然强调人文主义重要性的愿望是正确的,但文艺复兴过于强调这一点。独立自主的思想转变为“享受”自己而忽视社会。因此,在文艺复兴时期的结束,大多数资产阶级(中层的人)开始追求丰富的物质生活的路径。这体现的所谓尊严仅仅是在一个相对短的时间内拥有了更多奢侈品和其他东西的虚荣心满足,而这从而带来心灵的腐败。大量资本投入奢侈品交换,以及基础设施和其他的东西,最普通的老百姓在一定程度上需要被忽略。所有这些都是一种现代趋势:人们,尤其是年轻人,逐渐丧失了同理心,并更加孤芳自赏。在这种情况下,“社区”的概念发展越来越困难,社会不可避免地被割裂。因此,文艺复兴对现代社会产生了积极的影响,消极的不应被遗忘,应该尽快解决。

总之,文艺复兴运动是西方乃至世界历史上最重要的运动之一。这是连接近代史与古代史的一个鸿沟,它带来了世界性差异的各种影响。然而,所有这些作者的观念和细节在这一段是一个相对片面的观点。作者希望读者能指出那些不够简明或准确的错误或陈述,并为能听到这些建议而感到高兴和荣幸。

 

 

Signed, Gary Gustav Sun(President of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS), Sasha Zhao(Italian culture Consultant), Patrick Jiang(Vice President), Dilis Wu(Vice President)and all members of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS.V. INFLUENCE LEFT BY THE RENAISSANCE

Renaissance, as it lasted for over two centuries, left great influence.

First of all, it paved the road for capitalist revolutions in 17th and 18th century, and even for the Industrialisation. Renaissance freed the mind of people, taught them to be self-appreciating, taught them to love and to be loved, and taught them to accept the truth and knowledge, with whatever consequences may hide. This spirit led Europeans to a future of exploration, and thus the great evolution of science and many other aspects.

What’s more, it made up the foundation of Western culture. Renaissance was to re-establish the prosperity of humanism and art during the Classical Age, and modern Western culture is built up on the traditional classical culture in its entirety. What are applauded by today’s Western culture, including free speech, equality between races and sex were also what Romans and Greeks pursued. In such sense, Renaissance means much more than just a cultural and ideological movement, it is indeed the starter of modern Western culture.

Last but not least, Renaissance did bring about bad consequences, which still exist nowadays in some richest parts of the world. Although the wish to emphasise the importance of humanism was correct, Renaissance went too far on that emphasising. The thought of being independent and being oneself converted to be “enjoying” oneself and ignoring the community. Therefore, in the end of Renaissance, most of bourgeois(middle-level people) started to pursue a path of life rich in material. The need of luxuries and other objects that reflected pride and dignity was promoted much in a relevantly short time, and thus brought about the corruption of mind. Lots of capital was put to luxury exchange, and the infrastructure and other things that most of the commoners were in need were ignored to some extent(They were still being developed, anyway). All of these turned out to be a modern trend: people, particularly youths, are gradually losing their empathy, and rising their own narcissism. Under such circumstance, the concept development of “community” is becoming harder, and the society is inevitably being split apart. Therefore, Renaissance did bring about positive influences to modern society, while the negative counterparts shall not be forgotten, and they should be solved as fast as could.

In sum, Renaissance is one of the most important movements in Western, and in World History. It is a gap point to connect the modern history and ancient history, and it brings about various influences that make a worldwide difference. However, all of the notions and details that writer(s) state in this passage is from one or at least a minority of perspectives, and thereby forming a relevantly ex parte viewpoint to this enormous change in the history. The writer(s) hopes that readers can point out the mistakes or statements that are not concise or accurate enough, and will be more than delighted and honoured to hear the suggestions.

文艺复兴持续了两个多世纪,留下了巨大的影响。

首先,它为第十七和十八世纪的资本主义革命铺平了道路,甚至为工业革命铺平了道路。文艺复兴解放了人们的思想,教导他们要自我欣赏,教导他们去爱和被爱,教会他们接受真理和知识,无论后果如何。这种精神使欧洲人有了探索的动力,从而推动了科学的伟大发展和其他方面的进步。

更重要的是,它奠定了西方文化的基础。文艺复兴旨在重建古典时期人文主义和艺术的繁荣,而现代西方文化则是以传统的古典文化为整体建立起来的。今天的西方文化,包括言论自由、种族平等和性别平等,都是罗马人和希腊人所带起来的。从这个意义上说,文艺复兴不仅仅意味着一种文化和意识形态的运动,它确实是现代西方文化的开端。

最后,文艺复兴确实带来了不良后果,至今仍存在于世界上一些最富裕的地区。虽然强调人文主义重要性的愿望是正确的,但文艺复兴过于强调这一点。独立自主的思想转变为“享受”自己而忽视社会。因此,在文艺复兴时期的结束,大多数资产阶级(中层的人)开始追求丰富的物质生活的路径。这体现的所谓尊严仅仅是在一个相对短的时间内拥有了更多奢侈品和其他东西的虚荣心满足,而这从而带来心灵的腐败。大量资本投入奢侈品交换,以及基础设施和其他的东西,最普通的老百姓在一定程度上需要被忽略。所有这些都是一种现代趋势:人们,尤其是年轻人,逐渐丧失了同理心,并更加孤芳自赏。在这种情况下,“社区”的概念发展越来越困难,社会不可避免地被割裂。因此,文艺复兴对现代社会产生了积极的影响,消极的不应被遗忘,应该尽快解决。

总之,文艺复兴运动是西方乃至世界历史上最重要的运动之一。这是连接近代史与古代史的一个鸿沟,它带来了世界性差异的各种影响。然而,所有这些作者的观念和细节在这一段是一个相对片面的观点。作者希望读者能指出那些不够简明或准确的错误或陈述,并为能听到这些建议而感到高兴和荣幸。

 

 

Signed, Gary Gustav Sun(President of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS), Sasha Zhao(Italian culture Consultant), Patrick Jiang(Vice President), Dilis Wu(Vice President)and all members of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS.V. INFLUENCE LEFT BY THE RENAISSANCE

Renaissance, as it lasted for over two centuries, left great influence.

First of all, it paved the road for capitalist revolutions in 17th and 18th century, and even for the Industrialisation. Renaissance freed the mind of people, taught them to be self-appreciating, taught them to love and to be loved, and taught them to accept the truth and knowledge, with whatever consequences may hide. This spirit led Europeans to a future of exploration, and thus the great evolution of science and many other aspects.

What’s more, it made up the foundation of Western culture. Renaissance was to re-establish the prosperity of humanism and art during the Classical Age, and modern Western culture is built up on the traditional classical culture in its entirety. What are applauded by today’s Western culture, including free speech, equality between races and sex were also what Romans and Greeks pursued. In such sense, Renaissance means much more than just a cultural and ideological movement, it is indeed the starter of modern Western culture.

Last but not least, Renaissance did bring about bad consequences, which still exist nowadays in some richest parts of the world. Although the wish to emphasise the importance of humanism was correct, Renaissance went too far on that emphasising. The thought of being independent and being oneself converted to be “enjoying” oneself and ignoring the community. Therefore, in the end of Renaissance, most of bourgeois(middle-level people) started to pursue a path of life rich in material. The need of luxuries and other objects that reflected pride and dignity was promoted much in a relevantly short time, and thus brought about the corruption of mind. Lots of capital was put to luxury exchange, and the infrastructure and other things that most of the commoners were in need were ignored to some extent(They were still being developed, anyway). All of these turned out to be a modern trend: people, particularly youths, are gradually losing their empathy, and rising their own narcissism. Under such circumstance, the concept development of “community” is becoming harder, and the society is inevitably being split apart. Therefore, Renaissance did bring about positive influences to modern society, while the negative counterparts shall not be forgotten, and they should be solved as fast as could.

In sum, Renaissance is one of the most important movements in Western, and in World History. It is a gap point to connect the modern history and ancient history, and it brings about various influences that make a worldwide difference. However, all of the notions and details that writer(s) state in this passage is from one or at least a minority of perspectives, and thereby forming a relevantly ex parte viewpoint to this enormous change in the history. The writer(s) hopes that readers can point out the mistakes or statements that are not concise or accurate enough, and will be more than delighted and honoured to hear the suggestions.

文艺复兴持续了两个多世纪,留下了巨大的影响。

首先,它为第十七和十八世纪的资本主义革命铺平了道路,甚至为工业革命铺平了道路。文艺复兴解放了人们的思想,教导他们要自我欣赏,教导他们去爱和被爱,教会他们接受真理和知识,无论后果如何。这种精神使欧洲人有了探索的动力,从而推动了科学的伟大发展和其他方面的进步。

更重要的是,它奠定了西方文化的基础。文艺复兴旨在重建古典时期人文主义和艺术的繁荣,而现代西方文化则是以传统的古典文化为整体建立起来的。今天的西方文化,包括言论自由、种族平等和性别平等,都是罗马人和希腊人所带起来的。从这个意义上说,文艺复兴不仅仅意味着一种文化和意识形态的运动,它确实是现代西方文化的开端。

最后,文艺复兴确实带来了不良后果,至今仍存在于世界上一些最富裕的地区。虽然强调人文主义重要性的愿望是正确的,但文艺复兴过于强调这一点。独立自主的思想转变为“享受”自己而忽视社会。因此,在文艺复兴时期的结束,大多数资产阶级(中层的人)开始追求丰富的物质生活的路径。这体现的所谓尊严仅仅是在一个相对短的时间内拥有了更多奢侈品和其他东西的虚荣心满足,而这从而带来心灵的腐败。大量资本投入奢侈品交换,以及基础设施和其他的东西,最普通的老百姓在一定程度上需要被忽略。所有这些都是一种现代趋势:人们,尤其是年轻人,逐渐丧失了同理心,并更加孤芳自赏。在这种情况下,“社区”的概念发展越来越困难,社会不可避免地被割裂。因此,文艺复兴对现代社会产生了积极的影响,消极的不应被遗忘,应该尽快解决。

总之,文艺复兴运动是西方乃至世界历史上最重要的运动之一。这是连接近代史与古代史的一个鸿沟,它带来了世界性差异的各种影响。然而,所有这些作者的观念和细节在这一段是一个相对片面的观点。作者希望读者能指出那些不够简明或准确的错误或陈述,并为能听到这些建议而感到高兴和荣幸。

 

 

Signed, Gary Gustav Sun(President of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS), Sasha Zhao(Italian culture Consultant), Patrick Jiang(Vice President), Dilis Wu(Vice President)and all members of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS.V. INFLUENCE LEFT BY THE RENAISSANCE

Renaissance, as it lasted for over two centuries, left great influence.

First of all, it paved the road for capitalist revolutions in 17th and 18th century, and even for the Industrialisation. Renaissance freed the mind of people, taught them to be self-appreciating, taught them to love and to be loved, and taught them to accept the truth and knowledge, with whatever consequences may hide. This spirit led Europeans to a future of exploration, and thus the great evolution of science and many other aspects.

What’s more, it made up the foundation of Western culture. Renaissance was to re-establish the prosperity of humanism and art during the Classical Age, and modern Western culture is built up on the traditional classical culture in its entirety. What are applauded by today’s Western culture, including free speech, equality between races and sex were also what Romans and Greeks pursued. In such sense, Renaissance means much more than just a cultural and ideological movement, it is indeed the starter of modern Western culture.

Last but not least, Renaissance did bring about bad consequences, which still exist nowadays in some richest parts of the world. Although the wish to emphasise the importance of humanism was correct, Renaissance went too far on that emphasising. The thought of being independent and being oneself converted to be “enjoying” oneself and ignoring the community. Therefore, in the end of Renaissance, most of bourgeois(middle-level people) started to pursue a path of life rich in material. The need of luxuries and other objects that reflected pride and dignity was promoted much in a relevantly short time, and thus brought about the corruption of mind. Lots of capital was put to luxury exchange, and the infrastructure and other things that most of the commoners were in need were ignored to some extent(They were still being developed, anyway). All of these turned out to be a modern trend: people, particularly youths, are gradually losing their empathy, and rising their own narcissism. Under such circumstance, the concept development of “community” is becoming harder, and the society is inevitably being split apart. Therefore, Renaissance did bring about positive influences to modern society, while the negative counterparts shall not be forgotten, and they should be solved as fast as could.

In sum, Renaissance is one of the most important movements in Western, and in World History. It is a gap point to connect the modern history and ancient history, and it brings about various influences that make a worldwide difference. However, all of the notions and details that writer(s) state in this passage is from one or at least a minority of perspectives, and thereby forming a relevantly ex parte viewpoint to this enormous change in the history. The writer(s) hopes that readers can point out the mistakes or statements that are not concise or accurate enough, and will be more than delighted and honoured to hear the suggestions.

文艺复兴持续了两个多世纪,留下了巨大的影响。

首先,它为第十七和十八世纪的资本主义革命铺平了道路,甚至为工业革命铺平了道路。文艺复兴解放了人们的思想,教导他们要自我欣赏,教导他们去爱和被爱,教会他们接受真理和知识,无论后果如何。这种精神使欧洲人有了探索的动力,从而推动了科学的伟大发展和其他方面的进步。

更重要的是,它奠定了西方文化的基础。文艺复兴旨在重建古典时期人文主义和艺术的繁荣,而现代西方文化则是以传统的古典文化为整体建立起来的。今天的西方文化,包括言论自由、种族平等和性别平等,都是罗马人和希腊人所带起来的。从这个意义上说,文艺复兴不仅仅意味着一种文化和意识形态的运动,它确实是现代西方文化的开端。

最后,文艺复兴确实带来了不良后果,至今仍存在于世界上一些最富裕的地区。虽然强调人文主义重要性的愿望是正确的,但文艺复兴过于强调这一点。独立自主的思想转变为“享受”自己而忽视社会。因此,在文艺复兴时期的结束,大多数资产阶级(中层的人)开始追求丰富的物质生活的路径。这体现的所谓尊严仅仅是在一个相对短的时间内拥有了更多奢侈品和其他东西的虚荣心满足,而这从而带来心灵的腐败。大量资本投入奢侈品交换,以及基础设施和其他的东西,最普通的老百姓在一定程度上需要被忽略。所有这些都是一种现代趋势:人们,尤其是年轻人,逐渐丧失了同理心,并更加孤芳自赏。在这种情况下,“社区”的概念发展越来越困难,社会不可避免地被割裂。因此,文艺复兴对现代社会产生了积极的影响,消极的不应被遗忘,应该尽快解决。

总之,文艺复兴运动是西方乃至世界历史上最重要的运动之一。这是连接近代史与古代史的一个鸿沟,它带来了世界性差异的各种影响。然而,所有这些作者的观念和细节在这一段是一个相对片面的观点。作者希望读者能指出那些不够简明或准确的错误或陈述,并为能听到这些建议而感到高兴和荣幸。

 

 

Signed, Gary Gustav Sun(President of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS), Sasha Zhao(Italian culture Consultant), Patrick Jiang(Vice President), Dilis Wu(Vice President)and all members of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS.

V. INFLUENCE LEFT BY THE RENAISSANCE

Renaissance, as it lasted for over two centuries, left great influence.

First of all, it paved the road for capitalist revolutions in 17th and 18th century, and even for the Industrialisation. Renaissance freed the mind of people, taught them to be self-appreciating, taught them to love and to be loved, and taught them to accept the truth and knowledge, with whatever consequences may hide. This spirit led Europeans to a future of exploration, and thus the great evolution of science and many other aspects.

What’s more, it made up the foundation of Western culture. Renaissance was to re-establish the prosperity of humanism and art during the Classical Age, and modern Western culture is built up on the traditional classical culture in its entirety. What are applauded by today’s Western culture, including free speech, equality between races and sex were also what Romans and Greeks pursued. In such sense, Renaissance means much more than just a cultural and ideological movement, it is indeed the starter of modern Western culture.

Last but not least, Renaissance did bring about bad consequences, which still exist nowadays in some richest parts of the world. Although the wish to emphasise the importance of humanism was correct, Renaissance went too far on that emphasising. The thought of being independent and being oneself converted to be “enjoying” oneself and ignoring the community. Therefore, in the end of Renaissance, most of bourgeois(middle-level people) started to pursue a path of life rich in material. The need of luxuries and other objects that reflected pride and dignity was promoted much in a relevantly short time, and thus brought about the corruption of mind. Lots of capital was put to luxury exchange, and the infrastructure and other things that most of the commoners were in need were ignored to some extent(They were still being developed, anyway). All of these turned out to be a modern trend: people, particularly youths, are gradually losing their empathy, and rising their own narcissism. Under such circumstance, the concept development of “community” is becoming harder, and the society is inevitably being split apart. Therefore, Renaissance did bring about positive influences to modern society, while the negative counterparts shall not be forgotten, and they should be solved as fast as could.

In sum, Renaissance is one of the most important movements in Western, and in World History. It is a gap point to connect the modern history and ancient history, and it brings about various influences that make a worldwide difference. However, all of the notions and details that writer(s) state in this passage is from one or at least a minority of perspectives, and thereby forming a relevantly ex parte viewpoint to this enormous change in the history. The writer(s) hopes that readers can point out the mistakes or statements that are not concise or accurate enough, and will be more than delighted and honoured to hear the suggestions.

文艺复兴持续了两个多世纪,留下了巨大的影响。

首先,它为第十七和十八世纪的资本主义革命铺平了道路,甚至为工业革命铺平了道路。文艺复兴解放了人们的思想,教导他们要自我欣赏,教导他们去爱和被爱,教会他们接受真理和知识,无论后果如何。这种精神使欧洲人有了探索的动力,从而推动了科学的伟大发展和其他方面的进步。

更重要的是,它奠定了西方文化的基础。文艺复兴旨在重建古典时期人文主义和艺术的繁荣,而现代西方文化则是以传统的古典文化为整体建立起来的。今天的西方文化,包括言论自由、种族平等和性别平等,都是罗马人和希腊人所带起来的。从这个意义上说,文艺复兴不仅仅意味着一种文化和意识形态的运动,它确实是现代西方文化的开端。

最后,文艺复兴确实带来了不良后果,至今仍存在于世界上一些最富裕的地区。虽然强调人文主义重要性的愿望是正确的,但文艺复兴过于强调这一点。独立自主的思想转变为“享受”自己而忽视社会。因此,在文艺复兴时期的结束,大多数资产阶级(中层的人)开始追求丰富的物质生活的路径。这体现的所谓尊严仅仅是在一个相对短的时间内拥有了更多奢侈品和其他东西的虚荣心满足,而这从而带来心灵的腐败。大量资本投入奢侈品交换,以及基础设施和其他的东西,最普通的老百姓在一定程度上需要被忽略。所有这些都是一种现代趋势:人们,尤其是年轻人,逐渐丧失了同理心,并更加孤芳自赏。在这种情况下,“社区”的概念发展越来越困难,社会不可避免地被割裂。因此,文艺复兴对现代社会产生了积极的影响,消极的不应被遗忘,应该尽快解决。

总之,文艺复兴运动是西方乃至世界历史上最重要的运动之一。这是连接近代史与古代史的一个鸿沟,它带来了世界性差异的各种影响。然而,所有这些作者的观念和细节在这一段是一个相对片面的观点。作者希望读者能指出那些不够简明或准确的错误或陈述,并为能听到这些建议而感到高兴和荣幸。

 

 

Signed, Gary Gustav Sun(President of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS), Sasha Zhao(Italian culture Consultant), Patrick Jiang(Vice President), Dilis Wu(Vice President)and all members of Geographical&Humanity Club SFLS.


VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.       BAIKE.BAIDU.COM: RENAISSANCE

                                              LEONARDO DA VINCI

                                              MICHELANGELO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI SIMONI

                                              WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

(NO EDIT TIME FOUND, BUT ALL CITED ON 27 NOVEMBER 2017)

2. EN.WIKIPEDIA.COM: RENAISSANCE [LAST EDITED ON 22 September 2017, CITED ON 27 NOVEMBER 2017]

                                               MICHELANGELO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI SIMONI [LAST EDITED ON 16 November 2017, CITED ON 27 NOVEMBER 2017]

VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.       BAIKE.BAIDU.COM: RENAISSANCE

                                              LEONARDO DA VINCI

                                              MICHELANGELO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI SIMONI

                                              WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

(NO EDIT TIME FOUND, BUT ALL CITED ON 27 NOVEMBER 2017)

2. EN.WIKIPEDIA.COM: RENAISSANCE [LAST EDITED ON 22 September 2017, CITED ON 27 NOVEMBER 2017]

                                               MICHELANGELO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI SIMONI [LAST EDITED ON 16 November 2017, CITED ON 27 NOVEMBER 2017]VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.       BAIKE.BAIDU.COM: RENAISSANCE

                                              LEONARDO DA VINCI

                                              MICHELANGELO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI SIMONI

                                              WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

(NO EDIT TIME FOUND, BUT ALL CITED ON 27 NOVEMBER 2017)

2. EN.WIKIPEDIA.COM: RENAISSANCE [LAST EDITED ON 22 September 2017, CITED ON 27 NOVEMBER 2017]

                                               MICHELANGELO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI SIMONI [LAST EDITED ON 16 November 2017, CITED ON 27 NOVEMBER 2017]

VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.       BAIKE.BAIDU.COM: RENAISSANCE

                                              LEONARDO DA VINCI

                                              MICHELANGELO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI SIMONI

                                              WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

(NO EDIT TIME FOUND, BUT ALL CITED ON 27 NOVEMBER 2017)

2. EN.WIKIPEDIA.COM: RENAISSANCE [LAST EDITED ON 22 September 2017, CITED ON 27 NOVEMBER 2017]

                                               MICHELANGELO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI SIMONI [LAST EDITED ON 16 November 2017, CITED ON 27 NOVEMBER 2017]


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